Define Mac OS X. Mac OS X synonyms, Mac OS X pronunciation, Mac OS X translation, English dictionary definition of Mac OS X. Hyperfine structure American Heritage® Dictionary of the.
OS X is Apple's operating system that runs on Macintosh computers. It was first released in 2001 and over the next few years replaced Mac OS 9 (also known as Mac OS Classic) as the standard OS for Macs. It was called 'Mac OS X' until version OS X 10.8, when Apple dropped 'Mac' from the name.
OS X was originally built from NeXTSTEP, an operating system designed by NeXT, which Apple acquired when Steve Jobs returned to Apple in 1997. Like NeXTSTEP, OS X is based on Unix and uses the same Mach kernel. This kernel provides OS X with better multithreading capabilities and improved memory management compared to Mac OS Classic. While the change forced Mac developers to rewrite their software programs, it provided necessary performance improvements and scalability for future generations of Macs.
The OS X desktop interface is called the Finder and includes several standard features. OS X does not have a task bar like Windows, but instead includes a menu bar, which is fixed at the top of the screen. The menu bar options change depending on what application is currently running and is only hidden when full screen mode is enabled. The Finder also includes a Dock, which is displayed by default on the bottom of the screen. The Dock provides easy one-click access to frequently used applications and files. The Finder also displays a user-selectable desktop background that serves as a backdrop for icons and open windows.
When you start up a Mac, OS X loads automatically. It serves as the fundamental user interface, but also works behind the scenes, managing processes and applications. For example, when you double-click an application icon, OS X launches the corresponding program and provides memory to the application while it is running. It reallocates memory as necessary and frees up used memory when an application is quit. OS X also includes an extensive API, or library of functions, that developers can use when writing Mac programs.
While the OS X interface remains similar to the original version released in 2001, it has gone through several updates, which have each added numerous new features to the operating system. Below is a list of the different versions of OS X, along with their code names.
Updated: December 31, 2014
2.3.0 / August 18, 2018; 2 years ago
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From version 10.0 to version 10.15:
From version 11.0:
Dictionary is an application developed by Apple Inc. as a part of macOS. The application provides definitions and synonyms from various dictionaries, Wikipedia articles and a glossary of Apple-related terms.
Dictionary was introduced in OS X 10.4 with the New Oxford American Dictionary and Oxford American Writer's Thesaurus (as well as the Wikipedia and Apple sections). 10.5 added Japanese dictionaries, 10.7 added the British Oxford Dictionary of English, and 10.8 added French, German, Spanish and Chinese.
OS X's progenitor, OPENSTEP (and NEXTSTEP) provided similar functionality, called Digital Webster, providing dictionary and thesaurus definitions from Webster's Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary and Webster's Collegiate Thesaurus (termed the 'First Digital Edition'). OPENSTEP Services provide lookup from all applications.
Dictionary was first introduced with Mac OS X v10.4 'Tiger' and provided definitions from the New Oxford American Dictionary, 2nd Edition. With Mac OS X 10.7 'Lion', Dictionary was updated to the Third Edition of the New Oxford American Dictionary and the British Oxford Dictionary of English was added.
Words can be entered in the search bar by just typing the first few letters. The application will perform an incremental search to show any matching headwords or forms and will try to bypass spelling errors. Clicking on any word in a definition searches for that word in the dictionary again. Almost any word is clickable, except the pronunciations in phonetic characters and numerals.
The Preferences allow a user to select from three different pronunciation schemes, either US English (Diacritical or IPA), or British English (IPA).
The dictionary and thesaurus in Dictionary are in an XML format, but make use of precompiled binary index files to access the XML file directly. Therefore, the lexicon cannot easily be modified. However, the user can add new words to the macOS system-wide spell checker, which uses its own lexicon.
dict:///URI scheme, say from a web browser, and routes them back to the Dictionary application.
Mac OS X 10.5 (Leopard) added the Japanese-language dictionary Daijisen, Progressive English to Japanese and Progressive Japanese to English dictionaries, and the 25,000-entry thesaurus 'Tsukaikata no Wakaru Ruigo Reikai Jiten' (使い方の分かる類語例解辞典), all of which are provided by the Japanese publisher Shogakukan. The Japanese dictionaries do not show up by default and must be enabled in Preferences.
In OS X 10.8 Mountain Lion, the Japanese dictionaries were replaced by Super Daijirin and the Wisdom English-Japanese Dictionary. In addition, dictionaries were also added for French (Multidictionnaire de la Langue Française for Macs sold in Europe, or Les Éditions Québec Amérique for Macs sold in America), German (Duden), Spanish (Vox), and Chinese (Standard Dictionary of Contemporary Chinese).
Software such as DictUnifier can be used to add more dictionaries to the application.
Although dictionary entries purport to be neutral, some entries in the underlying Oxford dictionary have been criticized for exhibiting various forms of bias. A complaint was filed in 2013 about the entry for 'gay,' which included the 'informal' definition 'foolish, stupid, or unimpressive: making students wait for the light is kind of a gay rule.' The definition has since been amended with the label 'offensive.' In addition, writers of the dictionary exhibit gender bias in definitions such as 'political,' and 'apolitical.' The definition for 'political' associates the word with a man, ' he's a political man' and the example for 'apolitical' associates the word with a woman, 'not interested or involved in politics: a former apolitical housewife.' This form of gender bias has been documented in many dictionaries.